Women might be randomly assigned to both a HIVRR plus Microfinance (HIVRR+MF) or HIVRR alone control condition. We will evaluate two active situations providing the HIV threat reduction intervention to each intervention arms. This design will permit us to look at how the addition of the MF to HIVRR would possibly result in superior outcomes compared to receiving HIVRR alone. HIVRR intervention and the monetary literacy might be delivered by research employees and vocational coaching will be delivered by subject web site workers. We will enroll a median of twenty-two women per cohort per web site (forty four complete every 2.5 months) and complete enrollment by month 35.
The report particulars the way in which by which international human rights law obliges Kazakhstan to take effective and significant steps to ensure its legal framework adequately deals with discrimination and violence in opposition to women. This RCT might be conducted with 520 FSW-PWID recruited from 2 NGOs, one each in Temirtau and Pavlodar, Kazakhstan. Collaborating NGOs are You are Not Alone, in Pavlodar and the Association of People Living with HIV in Temirtau. They present the full spectrum of companies for individuals affected by STIs and HIV, together with FSW-PWID in every metropolis.
In addition to violence, our examine shows that FSWs who’ve engaged in intercourse work longer and have a history of incarceration are at a better danger of nonfatal overdose, highlighting structural components that will contribute to overdose. Because men who use medication outnumber women who use medicine,5 therapy programs usually fail to contemplate the gendered aspects of drug use. While the HIV epidemic in Kazakhstan has remained concentrated amongst excessive-risk populations since its beginnings, a current shift from parenteral to heterosexual transmission highlights the increased danger of HIV transmission to, and by, feminine sex staff . HIV prevalence continues to rise amongst FSW throughout the Central Asian area, but there was limited analysis and exposure to proof-based mostly HIV-prevention interventions for this inhabitants . As of 2014, there have been an estimated 19,600 FSW in Kazakhstan, but only 15 of 93 registered HIV service non-governmental organizations throughout the nation served FSW .
The CDC identified WORTH as a finest-apply, evidence-based mostly intervention and it has been carried out in a number of research within the USA with women who use medication . We have tailored the core components of WORTH to meet the cultural context and expertise of women who use medicine and interact in sex work in Kazakhstan. It focuses on each sexual and drug use danger reduction, and is designed to increase communication, drawback-fixing skills, and self-efficacy associated to safe-sex behaviors and drug use. Participants discover how drug use impacts their sexual risk with both paying and intimate companions, and are skilled in communication skills with each. Role play actions present the chance for ladies to follow these expertise and to determine and drawback-solve barriers to applying them. Participants receive fundamental training in emergency overdose response abilities.
Kazakhstan ranked 51st out of 144 countries in the World Economic Forum’s 2017 Gender Equality Index. Forced marriage and bride kidnapping are problems with which women and women are confronted in Kazakhstan, though their precise prevalence just isn’t identified. In Kazakhstan, bride kidnapping is divided into non-consensual and consensual abductions, kelisimsiz alyp qashu (“to take and run with out agreement”) and kelissimmen alyp qashu (“to take and run with settlement”), respectively. Some kidnappers are motivated by the wish to keep away from paying a bride price. Their position in society has been and is influenced by a wide range of elements, including native traditions and customs, many years of Soviet regime, fast social and economic adjustments and instability after independence, and new rising Western values.
All screening, knowledge assortment, and intervention procedures occurred in project area workplaces. Study employees referred participants to sexually transmitted infection and/or drug therapy, authorized services, and violence companies if wanted. All research protocols have been accredited by ethics committees at Columbia University and the Kazakhstan School of Public Health. The reporting followed the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology reporting guideline.
Kazakhstan was ranked 30th out of one hundred forty four countries in gender equality in a 2016 report carried out by nonprofit group Save the Children. The rating locations Kazakhstan ahead of countries such because the U.S. and Japan.
One systematic evaluate and meta-analysis has estimated that in low- and center-revenue countries like Kazakhstan, intercourse employees have thirteen.5 instances the odds of contracting HIV in comparison with all women of reproductive age . While official estimates put the prevalence of HIV amongst FSW in Kazakhstan at 1.3% , HIV prevalence is higher amongst FSW who use both injection and non-injection medication than among FSW who do not share these additional risks . Stigma in opposition to both intercourse work and drug use and aggressive policing could restrict their access to well being providers together with drug treatment in addition to legal recourse, and may subject them to sexual coercion and violence from police themselves . Furthermore, in Central Asia, few women who use medication have been reached by way of evidence-based mostly HIV or harm-reduction interventions, and most native HIV or drug treatment programming has not met their unique wants . During the first 2 weeks of the intervention period, each research arms obtain the HIVRR intervention. The HIVRR intervention was adapted from the Women on the Road to Health intervention .
Participants talk about casual and formal support systems out there in their group. Linkage to HIV care, drug treatment and different services are offered all through their enrollment within the research. Each session has objectives setting and homework project that present the opportunity for the ladies to follow the skills that they’ve discovered. Participants receive HIVRR in a 4-session intervention delivered twice a week for 2 weeks. Sessions are conducted in Russian by skilled feminine facilitators and final for approximately 2 h. Participants obtain small monetary incentives (US$12/session) for classes attended, as well as small protected-intercourse kits of condoms and lubricant. Adopted in 2009, the Law on State Guarantees of Equal Rights and Opportunities for Men and Women governs gender coverage.
Kazakhstan’s Strategy of Gender Equality for set sensible targets to measure progress in achieving gender equality in policy, the economy, schooling, household affairs, entry to healthcare and the prevention of violence against women and youngsters. It permitted in 2016 the Concept of Family and Gender Policy up to 2030, which seeks to make sure equal rights for all and prevent gender-primarily based discrimination and gender imbalances. The cause I selected this career was the truth that I have repeatedly skilled discrimination primarily based on gender. I consider that the worth of society should not be measured by the provision of pure assets similar to oil and gasoline, however by the respect for human rights, particularly for women. I myself suffered from sexual harassment in my pupil years, so this topic is near me. Founded in 1944 as a specialist women’s training faculty, the college was established as part of a wider national goal to enhance career opportunities and supply quality schooling for women in Kazakhstan.
As of 2019, the EBRD with partner monetary establishments offered 21,281 sub-loans value 28.9 billion tenge (US$seventy six million) to women-led enterprises in Kazakhstan. The EBRD also implements the Women in Microbusiness programme for 350 women entrepreneurs from 14 Kazakh areas to enhance their access to efficient business instruments and modernize how they do business.
Self-reported knowledge on behavioral outcomes might be collected by way of audio pc-assisted self-interview and assessed at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months post-intervention. Primary outcomes might be measured by way of organic assay for Neisseria gonorrhea, Trichomoniasis, Syphilis, Chlamydia and Mycoplasma, as well as for HIV and HCV. Biological outcomes are assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 months submit-intervention. Follow up assessments will begin in month 15 and the final 12 month comply with up shall be completed in month 51.
It earned college standing in 2008, and has since expanded to turn into a large nationwide greater education institution providing a spread of undergraduate and graduate degree programs that remain open to women applicants only. We used baseline, cross-sectional information from Project Nova, a cluster-randomized medical trial of a mix HIV risk discount and microfinance intervention in 2 cities in Kazakhstan. More info on participant recruitment and screening may be found elsewhere.22,23 Briefly, 763 women have been recruited and screened from nongovernmental organizations, HIV and drug treatment clinics, motels, saunas, and street-primarily based sex work venues. Of 410 eligible participants, four hundred accomplished a pc-assisted self-interview baseline evaluation in Russian. Verbal knowledgeable consent was obtained from all participants prior to screening, and written informed consent was obtained from all eligible examine members previous to participating in analysis-related actions.
An higher center-income country with a per capita GDP of USD 8,792 , Kazakhstan ranks 52nd of 144 countries on the 2017 WEF Global Gender Gap Index. During their initial speeches, activists in Bishkek mentioned that solely within the first two months of 2020 five women had been killed by their partners in Kyrgyzstan. But because the activists prepared to march, a number of dozens masked provocateurs attacked them. Participants of the march sought protection kazakh bride from the police, however their requests for help went unheard. Despite an official request to disperse, marchers rallied around local police officers in plain garments onto another pedestrian avenue. Serzhan and Makhmudova headed the column of activists, carrying a funeral wreath in reminiscence of all victims of home violence. “Share of ladies in management of state-owned corporations to extend to 30% in Kazakhstan”.
“Survey reveals Kazakh youth are happy with their country and future”. As of 2020, women account for five% of the management in Kazakhstan’s state-owned companies. On October 22, 2020, Kazakhstan President Kassym-Jomart Tokayev tasked the Government to progressively improve the proportion from 5 to 30%. Asian Development Bank implements a programme in Kazakhstan that supports small and medium-sized businesses. One-third of lending offered by the Bank was directed to women and 750 tasks worth 51.9 billion tenge (US$one hundred fifty five million) had been financed. One of the sessions of Astana Economic Forum in 2015 was dedicated to the International Women’s Forum organised by the Kazakh Association of Business Women . The session was specifically devoted to the financial advantages of gender equality in Central Asia and Afghanistan.